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Congenital Birth Defects - Spina Bifida, Hydrocephalus and Arnold-Chiari Malformation. Graphically depicts cauda equina of the spinal cord herniating into a meningomyelocele (spina bifida). Also shows increase intracranial pressure from excess cerebrospinal fluid causing hydrocephalus (water on the brain) and the herniation of the brain through the base of the skull at the foramen magnum (Arnold-Chiari Malformation).