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Back Surgery - L5-S1 Lumbar Discectomy and Spinal Fusion. This medical illustration series pictures the L5-S1 lumbar discectomy and fusion procedure, which includes the initial posterior lower back midline incision, a separate incision to harvest bone graft from the ilium, partial removal of the laminae, freeing of the nerve roots, decorticating bone surfaces of the sacral ala, and finally the placement of bone graft to fuse the vertebrae.